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Health Illustrated Encyclopedia Multimedia Rabies 08/14/2012
Rabies is a deadly viral infection that is mainly spread by infected animals. Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Rabies is spread by infected saliva that enters the body through a bite or broken skin. The virus travels from the wound to the brain, where it causes swelling, or inflammation. This inflammation leads to symptoms of the disease. Most rabies deaths occur in children. In the past, human cases in the United States usually resulted from a dog bite, but recently, more cases of human rabies have been linked to bats and raccoons.
Health Illustrated Encyclopedia Multimedia Radial nerve dysfunction 08/28/2012
Neuropathy - radial nerve; Radial nerve palsy; Mononeuropathy Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Radial neuropathy occurs when there is damage to the radial nerve, which travels down the arm and controls movement of the triceps muscle at the back of the upper arm.
Health Illustrated Encyclopedia Multimedia Radiation enteritis 08/10/2012
Radiation enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. Along with the cancer cells, radiation therapy may also damage cells that make up the lining of the intestines.
Health Illustrated Encyclopedia Multimedia Ramsay Hunt syndrome 05/21/2012
Hunt syndrome; Herpes oticus Causes, incidence, and risk factors: The varicella zoster virus that causes Ramsay Hunt syndrome is the same virus that causes chickenpox (varicella) and shingles. In people with Ramsay Hunt syndrome, the virus is believed to infect the facial nerve near the inner ear. This leads to irritation and swelling of the nerve.
Health Illustrated Encyclopedia Multimedia Rat-bite fever 10/06/2012
Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic erythema; Spirillary fever; Sodoku Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Rat-bite fever can be caused by two different bacteria, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus , both of which are found in the mouths of rodents. The disease is most often seen in: Asia Europe North America Most people get rat-bite fever through contact with urine or secretions from the mouth, eye, or nose of an infected animal.
Health Illustrated Encyclopedia Multimedia Raynaud’s phenomenon 04/20/2013
Raynaud’s phenomenon is a condition in which cold temperatures or strong emotions cause blood vessel spasms. This blocks blood flow to the fingers, toes, ears, and nose. Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Raynaud's phenomenon can be linked to other conditions. This is called secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. Most people with the condition are over age 30. Common causes are: Diseases of the arteries (such as atherosclerosis and Buerger's disease ) Drugs that cause narrowing of arteries (such as amphetamines, certain types of beta-blockers, some cancer drugs, certain drugs used for migraine headaches) Arthritis and autoimmune conditions (such as scleroderma , Sjogren syndrome , rheumatoid arthritis , and systemic lupus erythematosus ) Repeated injury or usage (such as from typing, playing the piano, or heavy use of hand tools) Smoking Frostbite Thoracic outlet syndrome Raynaud's phenomenon can also occur without another cause.
Health Illustrated Encyclopedia Multimedia Reactive arthritis 04/20/2013
Reiter syndrome; Post-infectious arthritis Causes, incidence, and risk factors: The exact cause of reactive arthritis is unknown. It occurs most often in men younger than age 40. It may follow an infection in the urethra after unprotected sex. It can also follow an intestinal infection (such as food poisoning).
Health Illustrated Encyclopedia Multimedia Reactive attachment disorder of infancy or early childhood 05/16/2012
Reactive attachment disorder is a problem with social interaction that occurs when a child's basic physical and emotional needs are neglected, particularly when the child is an infant. Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Reactive attachment disorder is caused by abuse or neglect of an infant's needs for: Emotional bonds with a primary or secondary caretaker Food Physical safety Touching The risk of neglect to the infant or child increases when the: Caregiver is mentally retarded Caregiver lacks parenting skills Parents are isolated Parents are teenagers A frequent change in caregivers (for example, in orphanages or foster care) is another cause of reactive attachment disorder.
Health Illustrated Encyclopedia Multimedia Rectal prolapse 08/17/2012
Rectal prolapse occurs when the rectum falls down and comes through the anal opening. Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Rectal prolapse occurs most often in children under age 6 and in the elderly. In children, it can be found with cystic fibrosis and whipworm (trichuriasis). In adults, it is usually found with constipation. It is also more common in people with autism, psychiatric disorders, and intellectual disability. Symptoms: The main symptom is a reddish-colored mass that sticks out from the opening of the anus, especially following a bowel movement.
Health Illustrated Encyclopedia Multimedia Reflux nephropathy 09/19/2011
Chronic atrophic pyelonephritis; Vesicoureteric reflux; Nephropathy - reflux; Ureteral reflux Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Urine flows from each kidney through tubes called ureters and into the bladder. When the bladder is full, it squeezes and sends the urine out through the urethra. None of the urine should flow back into the ureter when the bladder is squeezing.
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